The conflict between farmers and Indigenous of Guarani and Kaiowá ethnic groups for land ownership is an old problem in the city of Dourados in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Indigenous claim the areas occupied by the farmers and invade them, a process they call "Retomada". Farmers rely on the support of police and henchmen to evict the Indigenous from their property. The Brazilian government is conniving with this historic war. The agrarian conflict as well as the persecution of the indigenous peoples dates back to 1500 when the Portuguese arrived in Brazil. Traditional peoples suffer from loss of identity as a result of this social pressure.

The State of Mato Grosso do Sul is also the national leader of murders of Brazilian indigenous leaders. In 2017 there were 118 deaths according to the CIMI (Indian Missionary Council), 18 occurred due to aggression in the state.

The state of Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the main producers of soy in the country. Soybeans, exported in large scale to China, are a monoculture whose harvest is fully mechanized and promotes the depletion of terrestrial minerals. It is also a major contributor to deforestation in the Amazon.

Work comissioned for M le Magazine du Monde.

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